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About the Saker Falcon

Saker Falcon. Photo by I. KaryakinAppearance
The Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) is a large falcon, which is similar in looks to the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), in most cases with reddish-yellow or brown toned colouring. The colouring on the back ranges from dark-brown to reddish-brown or grey, with ochre and sometimes white edges to the covert feathers, which exhibit a distinct banding in some birds. Its underparts are white or reddish-brown with occasional drop-shaped or longitudinal streaks, more rarely found without these. In most eastern subspecies of Saker, well-defined stripes or drop-shaped streaks can be seen on the ‘trousers’ of the bird which in some birds merge into the dark backdrop. In the Altai-Sayan region the birds can be very dark with plain upperparts and very light streaks of varying intensities. Some dark-coloured birds have lower convert feathers on their wing, dark breasts and bellies and light flight and tail feathers with hazy, dark banding. The intensity of the ‘whiskers’ varies, however they are almost always visible, especially in dark-coloured birds.
The above description paints a general picture of an average Saker Falcon in its natural habitat, Saker Falcon. Photo by I. Karyakinhowever in the Altai-Sayan region we encounter a huge number of phenotypically different birds, the species identification of which is difficult at times (see below for more on subspecies division and differences between the Saker Falcon, Peregrine Falcon and Gyrfalcon).
Adult birds have yellow legs, their tarsus is a third covered but can be covered by up to a half; in the majority of cases the tarsus is longer than the middle digit. The cere and ring around the eyes are yellow on adult birds

Dimensions
Females are larger than males and coloured in the same way, although in general the females’ colouration is closer to that of young birds.
Weight of male – 0.65-0.95 kg, female – 0.85-1.40 kg. Body length of male and female – 425-604 mm. Wing length of male – 347-393 mm, female – 376-423 mm. Wing width (at 5th secondary flight feather) of male – 170-215 mm, female – 203-240 mm. Male wingspan – 1045-1180 mm, female – 1050-1290 mm. Tail length of male – 117-219 mm, female – 213-235 mm.

Nestlings of the Saker Falcon in the nest. Photo by I. KaryakinAge-related changes
Young birds are coloured more vividly. Their underparts exhibit frequent longitudinal spots, identical in colour to the main part of the back, rarely lighter. The back tends to be monochromatic or with narrow reddish-brown edges. The cere, ring around the eyes and feet are bluish-grey. A yellowing of the cere and feet occurs around the second-third years of life, although in individual birds the blue colouring on the feet can remain until the bird it three or four years old.
During its first week of life the chick’s first down feathers are silky white. A second, greyish-white layer of down feathers starts to form on the chick’s belly and tail area, covering the first downy coat of feathers by the end of the second week. At around 14 days the beginnings of flight and tail feathers appear, and the feathers themselves come out after 17-19 days. From this moment on chicks form a covering of feathers. By 26-27 days chicks have grown noticeable feathers on their shoulders and sides of their lower body, by 32-34 days plumage is almost completely formed, Nestlings of the Saker Falcon in the nest. Photo by I. Karyakinhowever due to remaining bits of fluff they are still fluffy in appearance. By 42 days, down is only present on the chick’s head. At the age of 45-49 days chicks lose their last bits of down and start to fly, however their tail and flight feathers continue to grow for an additional week. Sexual differentiation of chicks is possible from 25 days of age, however it should be remembered that chicks in broods are of different ages (the age difference between chicks tends to be 1-2 days, and in large broods the difference is greater between younger chicks than older chicks).
The development of chicks depends considerably on diet, therefore older chicks can be more developed, and if they are males their size may be identical to that of younger females which complicates sexual differentiation.
It ought also to be remembered that the males of falcons develop faster than females, overtaking them in terms of plumage in 2-4 days.

Click for size guide for chicks of varying ages >>>
Click for photo guide for chicks of varying ages >>>

Voice

Vociferance previous mating. Author: Veprintsev B.N.

A Saker Falcon’s cry from the web-site “Bird calls of Russia” Listen to a Saker Falcon’s cry on the site “Bird calls of Russia”

The adult bird is worried near the nest. Author: Veprintsev B.N.

Video in the site’s gallery

Operation “Altai Saker”
Altai Saker: back to nature

Different subspecies of the Saker Falvon. Photos by I. Karyakin, A. Levin, E. PotapovSubspecies and morphs
The Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug Gray, 1834) belongs to subgenus Hierofalco in which there is not enough clear morphological or genetic differentiation between species, which in most cases are separated as independent species on a geographical basis (the presence of geographical isolation between populations). In captivity all species of Hierofalco freely interbreed and produce fertile offspring which does not allow them to be ascribed to genetically-different species. Given these nuances, many specialists are inclined to believe that the Saker as a species hails from the Pleistocene-early Holocene epoch. On the other hand, analysis of mitochondrial DNA has shown that the Saker as a species, on a genetic level, is present in two groups of haplotypes, which are generally divided into the ‘Western’ and ‘Eastern’ Saker, indicating that the population came about as a result of recessive crossing in the postglacial era. Thus, the Saker as a species emerged during a period of climate aridification after the last Ice Age as a result of the recessive contact of two isolated forms of proto-gyrfalcon. As a result of this process, the most heterogeneous population with the richest genetic history ended up in the Altai-Sayan region.
Opinion is divided among authors as to the number of subspecies of Saker. The number ranges from 2 (Vaurie, 1961) to six or seven subspecies (Dementev, 1951; Stepanyan, 1990; Pfeffer, 2009).
At present it is accepted that the Saker is divided into 6 subspecies (Karyakin, 2011):
The Common Saker Falcon Falco cherrug cherrug was once the most populous subspecies, inhabiting the entire forest-steppe zone of Northern Eurasia from Central Europe to Transbaikal. In the present day the Common Saker’s habitat is fragmented into 6 isolates with numbers of 100-300 pairs in each, which are localised principally in Eastern Europe, Ukraine, the cross-border region of Russia and Kazakhstan and Central Kazakhstan. They nest mostly in trees (only in Central Kazakhstan do they for the most part nest on rock faces), although in recent years the European populations, having settled across agricultural regions of Hungary and Southern Ukraine, have begun nesting on power lines (a similar phenomenon is being observed in Central Kazakhstan).
The Chink Saker Falcon Falco cherrug korelovi [aralocaspius] inhabits the Aralo-Caspian region, where they nest almost exclusively on the steep inaccessible ledges (chinki) of the plateau. Numbers of this subspecies were estimated for the period 2003-2007 at 1.5-2 thousand pairs. Subspecies independence of the Chik Saker has been a subject of controversy for over a century, since German ornithologist Otto Kleinschmidt first described the species’ interesting colouring in 1901 and when it was assigned the scientific name aralocaspius (it was later proven that the bird doesn’t really have anything to do with the Aralo-Caspian Saker). This population of Chink Sakers was only identified in 2003 and further research produced a full description of the subspecies and clarified its nomenclature (Pfeffer, Karyakin, 2010; Pfeffer, Karyakin, 2011; Pfeffer, Karyakin, 2011; Martens, Bahr, 2012).
The Turkestan Saker Falcon Falco cherrug coatsi lives in the mountains of Central Asia, from Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan to Southern Kazakhstan. Their current numbers are unknown and it is not at all clear whether this subspecies retains characteristics of its purest form Mongolian Saker. Photo by I. Karyakin Numbers are thought to total no more than 300 pairs. They nest on rock faces and precipices.
The Central Asian Saker Falcon Falco cherrug milvipes inhabits the mountains of Central Asia from South-Eastern Kazakhstan to Altai and Sayan regions. Their numbers are currently estimated at around 500 pairs but have decreased alarmingly, primarily due to bird trapping in Eastern Kazakhstan. They nest mainly on rock faces.
The Mongolian Saker Falcon Falco cherrug progressus is found inhabiting the mountainous steppe landscapes of Mongolia and Northern China, in Russia nesting in South-Eastern Altai, Tuva and Transbaikal. The population of this species is estimated at 1.5-2 thousand pairs. They nest on rock faces and on manmade structures, occasionally on the ground or in trees.
The Tibetan Saker Falcon Falco cherrug hendersoni is the subspecies that lives at the highest altitude, inhabiting Tibet. Numbers are estimated at no less than one thousand pairs. They nest on rock faces and from time to time on manmade structures.
It is supposed that the taxonomic independence of the subspecies of Saker stems from the Turkish population (Pfeffer, 2009), however we lack detailed descriptions of falcons from Turkey, and this falcon here is on the verge of extinction (Ragyov et al., 2008; Dixon et al., 2009).
Siberian Saker. Photo by I. KaryakinIn Southern Siberia and Northern Mongolia from Altai to Transbaikal there lies a broad area of hybridisation between the ordinary Saker Falcons and eastern subspecies of Saker, i.e. between the Central Asian and the Mongolian Saker (Karyakin, 2010). Previously, birds from this hybrid population belonged to their own separate subspecies – the Siberian Saker Falcon Falco cherrug saceroides, however in recent times, despite the high frequency of meetings of birds with mixed phenotypes in this area of intergradation among subspecies, the independent status of the Siberian Saker has not been recognised (Karyakin, 2011).
In the zone where ordinary, Central Asian and Mongolian Saker Falcons most frequently mix, in the most heterogeneous areas with a high density of falcons of mixed phenotypes (so-called Siberian Sakers), birds with unique phenotypes appear which previously would have been considered independent species – the Lorenz Falcon and Altai Falcon. Research in recent years has outlined the groundlessness of these views and allowed us to refer to these birds as unique forms of Saker, which come about in the hybridisation zone of ordinary Sakers and its two Eastern subspecies (Karyakin, 2010; 2011).

Fledgling of the Peregrine Falcon. Photo by A. KovalenkoRelated species
The Saker’s closest related species are the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (which we find in the Saker’s habitat mainly in summertime) and the Gyrfalcon (which is in the Saker’s natural habitat in winter).
Young Peregrines look similar to Sakers cherrug and saceroides. The colouring on their upper bodies is brown with an ochre pattern formed of light coloured edges on the covert feathers; the ‘whisker’, brown in colour and contrasting with the lighter shades on the neck, is well defined and sufficiently wide (usually observed to be wider than the eyes). The front and back of the head is ochre, while their underparts are lighter with wide, brown streaks running lengthways. Their cere is a bluish-grey and feet are yellow or flesh-coloured (exceptionally, a bird may be seen with bluish-grey legs).
In flight the Peregrine’s wing proportions are distinctly different to those of the Saker: the wing is shorter and wider in the shoulder and forearm, and its brushes are longer and sharper. Further distinguishing features of the Peregrine in flight are its clearly defined ‘whiskers’ and ‘cap’. The tail is noticeably short, only just longer than the width of the wing. In less than ideal observational conditions the Peregrine could appear similar in colour to some darker falcons (in this case, the bodily proportions would be the only key distinguishing feature). Young Peregrines are distinguishable from Sakers and Gyrfalcons by their yellow feet, bare tarsometatarsus, seemingly longer legs (made so by the fact they are less than a third covered by feathers) and their wide ‘whiskers’. In some cases, features such as the ‘whisker’ and colouring of the feet are unreliable and bodily proportions remain the only real method of identification.
Peregrine chicks with fully formed nesting plumage are distinguishable from Saker and Gyrfalcon chicks by their flesh or yellow coloured feet (Saker and Gyrfalcon chicks have white feet with a greyish tinge or blue-grey legs), uncovered tarsometatarsus (Saker and Gyrfalcon chicks’ tarsometatarsus is at least a third covered) and wide, black area around the eyes (on Saker and Gyrfalcon chicks this area is bluish-grey).
Young Gyrfalcons are more intensely coloured than adults. Their underparts exhibit wide, longitudinal steaks, the colour of which varies from grey to brown. Their whiskers are well defined and the cere, ring around the eyes and feet are bluish-grey.
Gyrfalcon. Photo by I. UkolovIn the majority of cases, Gyrfalcons are only distinguishable from Sakers from close range, and in some cases it is impossible to correctly identify the species of the bird. In general, the Gyrfalcon’s silhouette is bulkier than the Saker’s; the head appears larger and brow ridge more defined. The tips of their flight feathers are pointed unlike the Saker’s rounded flights, something which is clearly visible when the tail expands. The white form of the Gyrfalcon when observed from the back clearly differs from that of the Saker, however, under observation other lighter and darker coloured Gyrfalcons are practically indistinguishable from similarly coloured Sakers. In most cases the Gyrfalcon can be correctly identified by the saturation of grey tones on its back or by its dark colour head and poorly defined ‘whisker’, however these features are quite unreliable. Young Gyrfalcons have a more contrasted pattern on their backs on account of the brightly coloured, practically white edges of their covert feathers (Sakers have a duller pattern), but there are many variations in the colouring of young Gyrfalcons and there may be birds which can barely be distinguished from similarly coloured Sakers progressus or altaicus.
Considering all of the above, one ought to be wary when taking large falcon encounters to be Gyrfalcon encounters, especially over the summer months. As long-term observation practice shows, the registrations of Gyrfalcons nesting in the Altai-Sayan region are erroneous, and encounters in European Russia and Western Siberia in winter are far rarer than encounters with Sakers (and in the Caucasus such Gyrfalcon encounters are hardly ever genuine).

Click for a photo guide of the distinctive features for Peregrines and Sakers and Gyrfalcons and Sakers >>>

Distribution of rhe Saker Falcon and other Hierofalco cpecies. From: Pfeffer, 2012Distribution and numbers
As little as 40 years ago Saker Falcons inhabited large expanses of desert, steppe and forest steppe zones from Austria and Bulgaria to the Far East. In the human-inhabited steppe and forest steppe areas of Eurasia they miraculously lived through the Virgin Lands Campaign and the DDT era. However, Sakers began being killed for the simple sake of human greed. In the late 70s active oil extraction began in the Gulf States and Sheiks, becoming rich before their very eyes, revived the cult of falconry. The Saker, as during the invasion of the Huns and the heyday of Genghis Khan’s Empire, became a symbol of wealth and power as well as a source of amusement for Eastern oil tycoons. Falcons were trapped in their thousands and numbers reached a dangerous level, beyond which extinction becomes a distinct possibility. By the 1970s Sakers had disappeared from the steppes of Western Kazakhstan, in the 80s they were gone from the forest steppe of the Volga Region, and by the mid-90s there were none left in the entire steppe and forest steppe zone of European Russia. A once common species, whose worldwide numbers were estimated in the tens of thousands of pairs, has become extremely rare, with current numbers totalling no more than 15 thousand pairs. No more than 2000 pairs are nesting in Russia, mainly concentrated in Southern Siberia.

See Google map of the present-day habitat of the Saker in Russia and Kazakhstan >>>

Habitats
The Saker Falcon is typically an inhabitant of open landscapes in arid zones. The biggest part of their natural habitat is linked with the presence of ground squirrels and pikas, which determine their distribution. In European Russia they inhabit forest steppe landscapes- a mosaic of koloks (small forested areas in fields) and steppe ravines inhabited by ground squirrels (Spermophilus sp.).
Nest of the Saker Falcon in the tree in forest-steppe. Photo by I. KaryakinIn the flat steppe zone they nest around the edges of terraced, watershed and island or belts of coniferous forest.
In the Minusinsk Basin and in southern regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai they are drawn towards more forested landscapes – coniferous subtaiga and forest steppe with high tree covering (they do not nest in central parts of steppe basins). In the Minusinsk Basin they stick to the large, rocky massifs of river valleys (Yenisei) and reef landscapes formed by glaciers where they nest on rocky outcrops of rivers and the tops of ridges flanking the valley.
In Irkutsk Oblast they inhabit the rugged forest steppe along the Angara River where they nest high in the island forests which border vast steppe pastures.
In the Transbaikal region they live in forests on the edge of steppe basins, found sporadically both in steppe basins and in the mountains, away from the vast expanses of the steppe.
Nest of the Saker Falcon on the cliff in the Altai high-mountains. Photo by I. KaryakinIn Altai and Southern Sayan they nest in the rugged steppe and desert regions almost exclusively on rock faces, both along rivers and amongst ridges. There have been cases of birds nesting in the flat desert regions of the Ubsunur Hollow, where falcons nest on the wooden poles of power lines, transformers and even on the ground.
In some high-altitude areas the Saker nests in the alpine belt of highland steppes at plateau-like elevations on rock faces and buttes.
They nest on buttes and in the middle of flat, Mongolian-type desert steppe.

Nests
In Altai and Tuva, Saker Falcons, which inhabit the flat, desertificated steppe, mountain-steppe regions of the inner parts of the basins and ridges that flank them, highland steppe and alpine meadows, nest almost exclusively on rock faces, Saker Falcon in the nest. Photo by I. Karyakinin most cases in the dwellings of the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), less often the Raven (Corvus corax) and rarer still in the dwellings of eagles (Aquila sp.) and the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra). In the flat steppes of southern Tuva they have been known to nest on power lines in Upland Buzzard and raven nests. North of Sayan in the foothills of Altai some Sakers nest in raven nests on rock faces and some in the dwellings of other birds of prey (namely the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca, Black Kite Milvus migrans, Common Buzzard Buteo buteo and Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis) in trees, for the most part conifers.
In lowland areas of Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan the Saker nests almost exclusively in trees, using Eastern Imperial Eagle, Kite, raven and Upland Buzzard dwellings. In Southern Ural they have been known to nest in dwellings of Eastern Imperials and Upland Buzzards (in pines and birches) and on rock faces, in raven nests.
In European Russia they were known to nest in trees using Kite and Eastern Imperial dwellings, and on power lines in raven nests.
In the overwhelming majority of cases Sakers nest in other birds’ constructions. A known exception to this is the nesting of some Sakers in rocky alcoves, like Peregrines.
By the end of nesting season nests become littered with droppings, as does the area around the nest where birds constantly perch. Long standing nests are covered with faeces, a layer of which can be up to 20 cm thick. Unlike Gyrfalcon nests, Saker nests are cleaner in appearance due to the birds’ primary diet of ground squirrels and pikas. When the time comes for the birds to leave the nest, the nesting hollow is covered with a layer of trampled woollen castings. Pairs nesting in the mountain tundra, who have partridges as part of their diet, have nests similar to those of Gyrfalcons, with a mass of victims’ feathers scattered around them.
Clutches of the Saker Falcon. Photos by I. KaryakinSakers lay from six to seven eggs (Gombobaatar, 2007; Dementev, 1951; Karyakin et al, 2005; Levin, 2008; Pfeffer, Karyakin, 2010; Dixon et al., 2010), however they usually lay from two to five, generally 4. The incubation period lasts around 30 days. The time between the laying of each egg is 1-2 days.
Saker eggs in Russia measure as follows: 53.1-58.6×40.9-44.5 mm, on average 55.9±0.56×42.8±0.19 mm (Karyakin et al., 2005); in Russia and Kazakhstan: 50.1-60.9×38.0-45.1 mm, on average 55.5×43.0 mm (Karyakin, 2004); in Mongolia: 50.86-66.2×32.50-47.24 mm, on average 56.5±2.0×46.69±1.6 mm (Gombobaatar et al., 2007).
Chicks are fed for 43-47 days from hatching to their first flight. In rare cases 40-42 day-old chicks leave the nest, still with down on their heads and almost unable to fly.
The female sits tightly to her eggs and will allow you to approach closely, not crying during examination of her nest. When chicks are hatched birds are often anxious and will fly around and cry. Active anxiety of adult birds is observed when fledglings are present. Occasionally you can see mock attacks from the female.
In concentrated settlements in the buttes and escarpments of the plateau in the middle of desert steppe, the distance between nests varies from 0.8-2 km, on average 1.5 km, in dense nesting groups – 2-7 km, usually 4.5 km, and in less saturated localities – 7-25 km.

Phenology
In Siberia, in the northern half of the breeding area the Saker is only partially settled. Here only adult birds winter at their nesting sites. Some adult birds migrate further, while others roam their breeding area. Almost all young birds leave their nesting sites and a large number migrate as early as July or August.
Sakers begin returning to their nesting sites in February or March. In March elements of mating rituals and copulation can be observed at nesting sites.
Sakers which have wintered as pairs at their nesting site set about breeding earlier than others, starting to lay eggs as early as 20th March.
Mass egg laying occurs in the region from 5th to 15th April. After the 20th April most nests generally house a full set of eggs. The individual pairs who started breeding earlier start laying in May or June, however this is generally associated with certain natural calamities such as poor weather and a dips in the amount of available food (Karyakin, Konovalov, 2001).
The first chicks hatch to wintering pairs around 20-25th April and fly the nest around 1st-10th June. Mass hatching takes place from 9th-18th May with chicks flying the nest from 22nd June to 5th July. Flightless chicks are frequently observed in their nests right up until 15th July. At later dates it is an extremely rare phenomenon to see flightless chicks.
The break-up of broods can start from as early as 20th July, however broods normally keep to their nest right up to the start of August. Mass fledgling migration and their appearance outside of the nesting site occurs around 5-20th August, and from 20th August adults birds begin migration.
Birds generally begin to move from the mountains to the lowlands in September, and by the end of October most migrating birds leave their nesting sites. From November to February only wintering birds are recorded in the nesting site.
In the southern part of the habitat (Ustyurt, Kyzyl Kum, Karatau), the breeding period shifts by 2.5-3.5 weeks. In the Aral-Caspian region some chicks are already flying by 9-10th May, and by the middle of June migrate north – to the Mugodzhar Hills, the Emba basin and the Subural Pleateau.

References
Gombobaatar S., Surniya D., Potapov E., Munkhzaya B. Gombobaatar S., Surniya D., Potapov E., Munkhzaya B. Breeding Biology of the Saker Falcon in Mongolia. – Raptors Conservation. 2007. 9. P. 17–26.
Dementev G.P. Birds of Prey – Birds of the Soviet Union. Vol.1. Moscow, 1951. P. 70–341.
Karyakin I.V. Raptors (Techniques for the study of birds of prey and owls). N.Novgorod, 2004. 351 p.
Karyakin I.V. Manuals for organizing the monitoring of the Saker Falcon populations in the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion. Krasnoyarsk, 2010. 122 с.
Karyakin I.V. Subspecies Population Structure of the Saker Falcon Range. – Raptors Conservation. 2011. 21. P. 116–170.
Karyakin I.V., Bakka S.V., Grabovskiy M.A., Konovalov L.I., Moshkin A.V., Pazhenkov A.S., 21. Smelyanskiy I.E., Rybenko A.V. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Russia. – Cadastre, monitoring and protection of IBAs Russia. Vol.5. Ed.: S.A. Bukreev. Moscow. 2005. P. 48–66.
Karyakin I.V., Konovalov L.I. Some features of late breeding of the Saker Falcon in the Altai-Sayan region. – Actual problems of study and conservation of birds in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Proceedings of the XI International Ornithological Conference. Kazakn, 2001. P. 288–289.
Levin A.S. Saker Falcon in Eastern Kazakhstan. – Raptors Conservation. 2008. 14. P. 85–95.
Pavlov D.S., Petrosyan V.G., Dgebuadze Yu.Yu., Roznov V.V., Reshetnikov Yu.S., Kuzmin S.L., Warsaw A.A., Korneev T.M., Pavlov A.V., Bessonov S.A., Veprintseva O.D., Omelchenko A.V., Pavlinov I.Ya., Orlov V.F., Loskot V.M., Dorofeeva E.A., Sideleva V.G. Information retrieval system “Vertebrates Russia”.
Pfeffer R. About Geographic Variances of the Saker Falcon. – Raptors Conservation. 2009. 16. P. 68–95.
Pfeffer R.G. The Role of Hybridisation in Origin of Forms in the Hierofalco Complex. – Raptors Conservation. 2012. 24. P. 148–164.
Pfeffer R.G., Karyakin I.V. Chink Saker Falcon is a Separate Subspecies Inhabiting North-West of the Middle Asia. – Raptors Conservation. 2010. 19. P. 164–185.
Pfeffer R.G., Karyakin I.V. On Changing the Scientific Name of the Chink Saker Falcon. – Raptors Conservation. 2011. 23. P. 61–63.
Stepanyan L.S. Synopsis of the ornithological fauna of the USSR. Moscow, 1990. 727 p.
Dixon A., P.-O. Gankhuyag, Ryagov D. Saker Falcon Laying Seven Eggs in Mongolia. – Falco. 2010. 36. P. 4–5.
Dixon, A., Ragyov, D., Ayas, Z., Deli, M., Demerdzhiev, D., Angelov, I., Kmetova, E. and Nedyalkov, N. Population status of breeding Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) in Turkey. Avian Biology Research, 2009. 2 (4), 213-220.
Martens J. & Bahr N. Dokumentation neuer Vogel-Taxa, 6 – Bericht fur 2010. – Vogelwarte 50, 2012: 177–196.
Pfeffer R.G. & Karyakin I. V. Der Tschink-Saker. Greifvögel und Falknerei. 2011. P. 134-154.
Ragyov, D., Ayas, Z., Deli, M., Dixon, A. An assessment of the population status of breeding Saker Falcons in Turkey: In: Proceedings of First Middle Eastern Biodiversity Congress, 20-23 October 2008, Aqaba, Jordan. 2008. [Poster presentation].
Vaurie C. Systematic Notes on Palearctic Birds. No. 45. Falconidae: The Genus Falco (Part 2). – American Museum Novitates. 1961. 2038. P. 1–24.

This essay is copyrighted. Recommended link to essay: Karyakin I.V. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). – Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network. 2012. url: http://rrrcn.ru/keyspecies/f_cher/o-balobane

Translation by Sam Winslow

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29.12.2018

OUTCOMES of the II International Scientific anp Practical Conference “Eagles of Palearctic: Study and Conservation”

Орлы Палеарктики: изучение и охрана

OUTCOMES of the II International Scientific Conference “Eagles Palaearctics: Study and Conservation”, held from 7 to 10 September 2018 in Katun vill. (Altai Kray, Russia), have been prepared.

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Пернатые хищники и их охрана 38

Raptors Conservation 38

The new issue of the Raptors Conservation Journal №38 has been published. The issue contains the Proceedings of the II International Scientific Conference “Eagles of Palearctic: Study and Conservation”.

Орлы Палеарктики: изучение и охрана

Reports presented on the II International Scientific and Practical Conference ‘Eagles of Palearctic: Study and Conservation”

Reports presented on the II International Scientific and Practical Conference ‘Eagles of Palearctic: Study and Conservation” (Park-Hotel Lake Aya, Katun village, Altai Kray, Russia, 7-10 September 2018).

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